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Media - Books


Book jargon

Advance copy A copy of a book usually sent to reviewers prior to publication, may be in a different format and may or may not be bound

Advance sheets The unbound sheets of a new book, often galleys, distributed prior to publication

Advertisements Many books & pamphlets, especially of the 19th century contained ads, especially ones advertising others books by the same publisher,often located at the back of the volume, following the text pages

All published The book or set is complete as is, and any additional parts or volumes were never published

Annotated Including critical and explanatory notes.

Aquatint An etching method widely used in late-Eighteenth and early-Nineteenth century illustrated books, these were frequently colored by hand after printing.

ARC Advanced Reading Copy

As new see Condition

Association copy A book or pamphlet that has some indication of having belonged to the author or someone closely associated with them.

As usual A term used to describe normal defects related to ex library books, i.e., endpapers removed, pockets & library stamps.

Authors edition Book authorized by author, usually foreign editions, around the turn of the last century when many titles were pirated or "unauthorized"

Bastard title a page at the beginning of a book containing only the title of the book

bc, bce A book club edition. Books printed for a book club.

bds. boards

Bevelled boards see bevelled edges

Bevelled edges A binding technique in which the edges of the boards of the book have been cut to a slanted angle. Also known as bevelled boards

Bibliography A list of works, occasionally in great detail, on a given subject or by a given author

Biopredation An attack to books by living matter, which may include insects or mildew

Binding #The method of holding pages or sheets together; may be simply stapled or sewn, or sewn and enclosed in wrappers, but most often refers to a "hard" binding or covers. This type of binding may be covered with cloth, various leathers, or paper over boards or other more exotic materials. The binding can be done by hand or by machine. The following terms relate primarily to leather bindings

Full binding Volume that is entirely encased in leather calf, ie; sheep, morocco, etc

Three quarter binding Volume has leather spine and corners which occupy approx. 3/4 of the space along top edge of board (cover). The remainder of the board is covered with marbled paper, plain paper, cloth, different leather, etc

Half binding The spine and corner leather occupy only approx. 1/2 of top edge

Quarter binding Usually lacks leather corners and leather of the spine occupies only approx. 1/4 of the top edge.Binding copy: a book lacking the original binding or with a binding in poor condition, i.e. a book in need of a new binding - can also be referred to as a reading copy

Blanks Refers to a blank page that is left intentionally in the book. It can be located at beginning of the book, at the end of a clearly marked division, and/or at the end of book. Also known as blank leaves or printer's blanks

Blind (Stamped or Tooled)

Impressed into paper or binding with no color, leaving an impression only

Boards The covers of a hard bound book; the boards are the stiff cardboard or paperboard which is usually covered with cloth or leather; and when covered with paper, the covers are properly referred to as "boards". Many pre-1850 books were issued by the publishers bound in boards (paper covered), allowing for an inexpensive binding which could later be replaced with leather by a hand book binder. Early (medieval) manuscript volumes were often bound between two oak boards, hence the probable origin of this term

Book club edition Usually an inexpensive reprint utilizing poor quality paper and binding and sold by subscription to members of a book club; in general, of little interest to book collectors and of low monetary value

Book jacket The paper, often with illustrations and information about the book and author, used as a protective covering over the book; usually referred to as a "dust jacket" or "dj", sometimes called a "dust wrapper". Dust jacket art work is used to promote and sell the book

Book formats #The traditional terms in use for describing book formats are derived from early printing methodology and the size of early handmade sheets of paper. When two leaves (four pages when printed on both sides) were printed on a sheet so that it could be folded once, collated with other folded sheets and bound, the format of the volume was a "folio". When four leaves (eight pages) were printed on the same size sheet, which would later be folded twice, the format of the resultant volume was a "quarto" (four leaves). The term "octavo" relates to the sheet having eight leaves printed on it. Today some booksellers are providing the height of a book in inches or centimeters rather than using these early terms which do not relate directly to the sheet size or process used for printing today. The following is offered as a guide to convert book formats to approximate book sizes:

· Folio: more than 13 inches tall

· Quarto (4to): approx. 10 to 13 inches tall, average 12 inches

· Octavo (8vo): approx. 8 to 10 inches tall, average 9 inches

· Duodecimo (12mo): approx. 7 to 8 inches tall, average 7.5 inches

· Sextodecimo (16mo): approx. 6 to 7 inches tall, average 6.5 inches

There are smaller and larger books, i.e. many miniatures are 64mo, and most hard bound books are either octavo or duodecimo in size

Bookplate A label pasted to the inner part of the book indicating ownership

Booklet A small book, often only a few pages long and mostly soft-covered

Bookworm Any of a number of moth or fly larvae which tunnel through the pages of books leaving behind small channels, holes in individual leaves. Very early books often have some evidence of bookworm damage

Bright copy Refers to the condition of a book; a surprisingly bright or fresh copy of an older book. It is as new and clean as the day it was published

Broadside A printing, often an official announcement or poem or music, which occurs on a single sheet of paper and only on one side; the verso (other side) is blank. When printed on both sides, the sheet becomes a "broadsheet"

Broadsheet A printing which occurs on both sides of a single leaf (see also broadside)

Browning The aging of a book that creates a brown looking page. This process is most noticeable in older books with some degree of acid content within the book. This detracts from a books appearance and value

Buckram A stiff, coarsely woven, filled cloth used for less expensive, but stronger wearing, cloth book binding material; often used for library books

Bumped Refers to the condition of a book; it refers to worn, bent, or rounded corners of the boards of a book

b/w Black and white illustrations, photographs, etc.

 

 

Calf Book binding leather from a calf hide or cattle hide; a commonly used material for leather binding - see also morocco, sheep and vellum.

Case The covers enclosing a book, usually made of thick cardboard, or a specially made case for a book

Chapbook #Small, inexpensive books produced from the 17th century until today, originally sold by "chapmen", peddlers, and hawkers

Chipped Small pieces broken off of a dust jacket or binding

Chromolithography Color printing from multiple impositions of lithographic stones or similar lithographic printing surfaces. A process of illustration that reached its zenith in the mid-Nineteenth century

circa Refers to an approximate date when actual date is unknown

cl. cloth (clothbound)

Closed tear A tear with no material missing

Cloth Book binding material woven from cotton, linen, wool or synthetic fibers

Coated Paper is smooth and polished; something has been applied to the surface to make it appear glossy

Cocked If, when looking down on the head of a book, the corners are not square it is said to be cocked or rolled. Also known as a spine slant or squinting to the spine.

Cockled Refers to the condition of a book; the wrinkled, puckered, waving, or curling condition of a page or of the boards of a book, which is caused by non-uniform drying and shrinkage.

Collate To verify completeness of a book by examining it carefully (e.g.: all illustrative plates are present, no pages to the book are missing, etc)

Collation Used in descriptive bibliography as the term which describes the non-binding portion of the book, verifying the proper sequence and completeness of pages & their gatherings (signatures)

Colophon A statement occurring at the rear of a volume following the text, relating information about the printing history and physical aspects of the book; often includes name of printer, type of paper, typeface, size of edition, date of printing, etc. Early books often had a colophon instead of a title page imprint and modern private press or other examples of fine printing often use a colophon

Compartments Ruled lines forming a square border or frame on a binding, which is done in gilt or by blind tooling. Also known as pannelled.

Condition #Below are the common six states of condition.

Mint / As New A book that is in new condition, that has never been read and is without any defects whatsoever.

Fine (F) Approaches the above, but not crisp. May have been carefully read and dustjacket may have been slightly rubbed or spine ends slightly bumped from shelving/shipping, but no real defects or faults.

Very good A used book showing some small signs of wear on either binding or dustjacket. Any defects/faults must be noted.

Good The average used and worn book that has all pages or leaves present. Any defects must be noted.

Fair A worn book that has complete text pages (including those with maps or plates) but may lack endpapers, half-title page, etc. (which must be noted). Binding, dustjacket, etc. may also be worn. All defects/faults must be noted.

Poor A book that is sufficiently worn that its only merit is the complete text, which must be legible. Any missing maps or plates should still be noted. May be soiled, scuffed, stained, or spotted, and may have loose joints, hinges, pages, etc. Also called Reading copy.

Contemporary binding Up until the 19th century, books were published unbound, with the understanding that the new owner would have his books bound at his leisure. This term refers to bindings done the same year or within a few years of the publication of such a book

Copperplate Illustrations produced when the original printing plate was engraved on copper; this method was introduced before the end of the 15th century. They replaced the woodcut, which reappeared later on

Copyright page The page that appears on verso of the title page, containing the artistic property protection

Covers The binding of a book; i.e. cloth, calf, morocco, boards, wrappers, etc

Cracked Refers to the condition of a book; there is a long narrow opening or break down the spine or in the cover

Crimped Refers to the condition of a book; a grooved, indented, or pinched condition of a cover or page, which is caused by extreme humidity. It can also describe a bookmaking process that bends the hinges of loose-leaf books so that the pages of a book will easily turnover and lie flat

Cropped The margins of the book have been trimmed by the binder, usually too close to the text or into the text

Cut An illustration that is printed on a text page. See also plate

Cut edges The most common type of book edges, trimmed even with a large binders knife prior to finishing the binding process (see also uncut, unopened, and deckle edges)

Dampstain Stain often of a shade of tan or gray resulting from water or other liquid damage to a volume; tolerated by collectors when it is minimal and occurs in very old, scarce volumes; its presence does lower the monetary value. dec, decor decorated Deckle edge Natural or sometimes artificial rough edge of page, left uncut (see also cut edges, uncut, and unopened) Dedication Copy A copy of a book inscribed by the author to the person to whom the book is dedicated deluxe edition An edition of a book that has been specially printed and bound for its fine appearance. Sometimes refers to limited editions with special leather or decorated cloth bindings, gilt edges etc Dentelle A lace-like pattern applied to the edges of the cover of the inside border of a book bound in leather Desiderata A listing of books desired Device A printer's ornament or an insignia which is the publisher's identifying mark Dimple An indentation, such as on a golf ball, on covers or pages. Ding A small bump or dent leaving an impression, sometimes caused by careless handling or storage Disbound Descriptive term for a book or pamphlet or ephemera which has been removed from its binding Doctered A book that has been repaired, restored, or even added to. Also known as made-up Dog-eared Worn or ragged, usually referring to the edges of pages and binding. Corners of pages turned down like a dog's ear. Dummy copy Book made to appear like a soon to be published title, but with a text block of blank pages Duodecimo see definition under Book Formats Dust jacket see dust wrapper Dust wrapper The paper, often with illustrations and information about the book, used as a protective covering over the book; sometimes called a book jacket (dj) or a dust wrapper (dw). Collectors of literary first editions usually insist on having a fine copy of the original dust jacket with the book Edges The three outer sides of the text block when book is closed: fore edge, top edge or head, and bottom edge or foot ed. edition Edition & Printing Edition includes the copies of a book or other printed material which originate from the same plates or setting of type. If 500 copies of a book are printed on Oct. 5 and 300 copies are printed from the same substantially unchanged plates on Dec. 10, all 800 copies are part of the same edition.

Printing: the copies of a book or other printed material which originate from the same press run or from the same plates or setting of type at one time. In the example given for "Edition" above, the 500 copies would be the first printing and the 300 copies comprise the second printing. In the 19th century some publishers labeled later printings as if they were later editions, i.e. a second printing would be called a "second edition" on the copyright page Embossed leather A leather which has been printed with a raised design End paper Paper, often of coated stock or marbled paper or otherwise "fancy" paper, with one half pasted to the cover; used primarily to give a finished appearance to the binding Ephemera Throwaway paper of every day life (e.g.: advertising, ticket stubs, programs, some booklets and pamphlets, etc.) Errata A list of errors and their corrections or additions to the printing, found after book has been printed, usually on separate sheet or slip of paper. The plural of erratum Ex-library Legitimately removed (discarded/deaccessioned) from an institutional library, such as a public library, university library, historical society, etc. Often has catalog numbers inked or painted on the spine, library bookplates, embossed or rubber-stamped identification on the title page and plates, library card pockets and often shows considerable wear and/or rebinding in a plain buckram. Referred to as "ex-lib" and of considerably lower monetary value than the respective book which has never been the property of an institutional library Ex-libris A Latin phrase meaning "from the books" or to paraphrase, "from the library or collection of"; the phrase is frequently used on bookplates Extra-illustrated Usually a volume made into a unique copy with additional illustrations, autographs, or manuscripts added by carefully gluing or tipping-in this extra material Facsimile A reproduction of a book. Many facsimiles have some designation

on them to distinguish them from the book they are replicating Fading Refers to the condition of a book; describes the loss of color on the pages, dust jacket, or the cover of the book, which is usually caused by time or exposure to sunlight Fair see Condition False band A fake raised band that is attached directly to the spine of the book or the hollow of the cover. This decorative element is designed to make the book look sturdier than it actually is Festschrift A book containing a number of scholarly essays printed in honor of an individual Fine see Condition Fine binding An elaborately designed book; for example, a book that is bound in leather with blind stamps and gilt edges First Appearances

this term can refer to several different concepts:

· The first time an author appears in print, i.e. Henry D. Thoreau's first appearance in print was as an anonymous obituary in a Concord newspaper.

· The first time a specific writing of an author appears (in a magazine or newspaper or anthology), Emily Dickinson's poem "I'm nobody Who are you" appears first in "Life", March 1891.

· The first time a specific subject is treated in book form, i.e. the first American book on the subject of dry fly fishing was written by Emlyn Gill and published in 1913

First Books The first book appearance by an author (usually refers to a book entirely by the author, not merely a first appearance of a poem or short story in an anthology). Frequently an established, well known author's first book is not widely known; i.e. James Fenimore Cooper's "Precaution" First Edition All of the copies printed from the first setting of type; can include multiple printings if all are from the same setting of type. Every printed book has a first edition, many never have later editions. A later edition would have substantial changes in the printing plates or type such as the addition of a new preface or new chapter or major changes throughout the text and often is printed from a complete resetting of the type. When book collectors use the term first edition, they are usually referring to the first printing and if there are different states or issues, the earliest of those

- some related terms:

· Issue: a portion of an edition printed or published deliberately by the printer or publisher in a distinct form differing from the rest of the printing relative to paper, binding, format, etc. The distinction between "issue" and "state" is that the former relates to changes done on purpose by the publisher and intentionally treated as a separate unit, i.e. a large paper issue.

· State: a portion of a printing with changes such as minor alterations to the text either intentional or accidental; insertion of cancels, advertisements, or insertions; copies on different paper without intention of creating a searate issue; and other changes other than folding or collating or binding. An example would be when a pressman discovers battered or broken type, stops the presses and resets that portion of the page by replacing the broken type and then resumes the printing.

· Variants: usually refers to differences in bindings or end papers ( paper located just inside the front and rear covers, one half of which is glued to the cover) within an issue or printing. One variant may have a title stamped on the front cover in black and another may be stamped in red

First thus Not a first edition, but something new, revised, having a new introduction by the author or someone else, new illustrations, but the first publication in its new form or by a new publisher Flyleaf A blank leaf (or leaves) inserted during the binding process between the free end paper and the beginning or end of the printed pages Flexible binding Limp, leather/plastic covers which are flexible Folio see Book Formats Foot The bottom edge of the text block Fore edge The right edge opposite the spine Fore edge painting A painting on gilded fore edge, which can only be seen by fanning pages. Popular in the 15th and 16th centuries, and occasionally still being done today Foxing Rust colored spots which occur on paper resulting from oxidation of both organic and iron impurities left behind during the paper making process. Only when these impurities exist in the paper, given exposure to the right humidity and temperature factors, will foxing occur. This process is intrinsic to the paper; some paper will never have the rusty, brown, yellow spots known as foxing Fraying Refers to the condition of a book; the unraveling of the threads or fibers of an edge of a book cover that is caused by excessive rubbing Free endpaper Front and rear blank pages added by the binder Frontispiece An illustration or plate inserted immediately in front of the title page, with the illustration facing the title page, often abbreviated as frontis Front matter The pages preceeding the text of a book Full Binding Usually refers to leather binding, see Binding Galley Proof (Author's Proof). Copies of the book (usually in an inexpensive binding) intended for the author, editors, and proof readers to correct g.t. Gilt top, gilt applied to the top edge of the text block Gathering A folded printed sheet of leaves prior to binding; referred to as a signature after binding Gauffered edges A pattern tooled on gilt edges of book g.e. Gilt edges Gilt top Gilt top, gilt applied to the top edge of the text block Gilt edges Page edges cut smooth and gilded (covered with a thin layer of gold leaf) Glassine Transparent paper sometimes used as a dust jacket to protect a book Gnawed Refers to the condition of a book; chewed-on edges or corners of a book Good see Condition Gouge Refers to the condition of a book; an unintentional nick or hole in the cover of a book, or on its spine. Or in bookbinding, a single-line finishing tool that is used to create either blind or gold decoration on the covers but not on the spine of a book Grading Guidelines used to properly describe condition of books. See condition g.t. gilt top Gutter The inner margin of the leaves of a bound book; adjacent inner margins of facing pages when book is open Half binding see Binding Half cloth Cloth spine and paper covered sides Half title A page which precedes the the title page and the text, with the title (often abbreviated) usually centered on the page Hardbound hardcover Hardcover A book whose case is made of stiff boards, as opposed to wrappers hb hardbound hc hardcover Head Top edge of the text block Headband Band of silk or cotton affixed to signatures when bound for strength or, more often, decoration of the spine High spot A term that is used to denote a highly regarded first or important edition of a book Highlighting The bright pen markings where the previous owner marked the book to highlight words, sentences, and/or passages of text Hinge The inside portion of the flexible area where book cover meets the book spine; often used interchangeably with the term joint, which should be used to designate the outside or exterior portion of the "hinge". A volume which has received heavy or rough use often has cracked or broken hinges Holograph Anything handwritten entirely by the writer; i.e. a letter written entirely in the handwriting of the correspondent is a holograph of that person Ideal copy When a number of copies of an edition of a book are compared to each other, a bibliographer may set out what he or she considers to be the description of the standard copy of that edition, to which all other copies can be compared. Thus, when a book is said to be "missing a page", it is assumed that the ideal copy of that book always contains that particular page Illuminated A manuscript or book embellished with decorative elements that are typically hand-painted in rich colors and are sometimes gilded. The elements may include initial letters, designs, and/or pictorial scenes illustrated wraps See pictorial paper cover Impression All the copies of a book printed during one press run. During the handpress period, when type was reset each time a press was used, this term was synonymous with edition Imprint When used as a noun refers to the publication data located at the base of a title page, usually includes the city of publication, name of the publisher (sometimes the printer),and the year of publication. Sometimes this information is located in a colophon at the back of a book. Imprint can also be used to refer to a printed piece from a certain location or period of time, i.e. the university has a collection of 18th century Massachusetts imprints Incunable Anything printed during the 15th century, the first century of printing with "moveable type"; from the Latin, meaning "from the cradle"; can also be used in a relative sense to refer to other early printings, i.e. incunables from the Pacific islands Inscribed A book, or other printed piece, with a handwritten and signed statement usually written for a specific named person(s) and often located on the end paper or title page; when "inscribed" is used to describe a book, unless otherwise stated, it is implied that the author has written the inscription. When used to designate the recipients of a book as a gift from the author (or publisher), it is called a "presentation inscription" Interleaved When blank leaves alternate with the printed leaves of a book Issue A portion of an edition printed or published deliberately by the printer or publisher in a distinct form differing from the rest of the printing relative to paper, binding, format, etc. The distinction between "issue" and "state" is that the former relates to changes done on purpose by the publisher and intentionally treated as a separate unit, i.e. a large paper issue. (see also first edition, state, variant)

Juvenilia Work written when an author was extremely young, often as a child Laid in Paper/photograph/print is laid in (not glued down) Laid on See tipped in Laminate The thin plastic layer covering the dust jacket of some books Large paper copy A special edition printed with the pages reconfigured to result in larger leaves with very wide page margins; the text of the individual pages remaining the same as the normal edition; usually large paper copies are printed in small, limited editions Leaf (leaves) Refers to the smallest, standard physical unit of paper in a printed piece; in the case of books and pamphlets, usually with a printed page on each side of a leaf; a broadside is printed on a single side of a single leaf.Marbled edges: usually the top, bottom and foreedge of a book with a multi-colored, swirled design, somewhat resembling the coloration pattern of marble stone. Leatherette An imitation of grained leather, produced from a strong, machine-glazed base paper. Many small prayer books, for example, are leatherette. See also imitation leather Levant Elegant and highly polished morocco goatskin leather with a grain-pattern surface Limited edition Small number of copies of book published. Books are usually numbered such as "100/500" meaning number 100 of an edition of 500 Limp cover A book that has a flexible cloth, leather, or vellum cover. In the last quarter of the 18th century and the first quarter of the 19th, limp leather covers were commonly used for books to be carried in the pocket. In the 20th century, the primary use was for cheap, educational, sentimental verse, or devotional books. Also known as limp cloth, limp binding, limp leather, or limp vellum Lithography One of a class of processes termed planographic, in which the printing surface (stone, zinc or a similar smooth-surfaced material) is not incised but instead treated with a medium that selectively absorbs (or repels) printing ink Loose When a book has been read carelessly or too often, and has become loose and sloppy in its binding Loose-leaf The binding of individual sheets of paper in an exchangeable form, for pages to be added, removed, or relocated in the book. Loose-leaf bindings are used wherever records of repeatedly changing information must be kept. Instruction manuals, catalogs, and accounting forms are often loose-leaf bound. Also known as ring-bound LS Letter signed, a letter written by another, usually a secretary, but signed by the correspondent, as opposed to an ALS which is written entirely in the hand of the correspondent Manuscript The original pages of an author's work, written in the author's hand or typed Marbled paper Paper decorated with a multi-colored, swirled design or pattern; often used for end papers or for paper covered boards, especially with 3/4 or 1/2 leather bindings Married Two related items brought together, though not initially sold as a unit, for the purpose of making the set complete as published (i.e.: a book and dust jacket, or two volumes in a set) Mint see Condition Misbound An illustration, map, or a number of pages that have been incorrectly folded, bound in the wrong place, or bound in upside down Modern First A first edition of a book published within this century Monograph A work, generally short, dealing with a single subject Morocco Leather binding made from goat hides; usually used in high quality or fine bindings for the interesting texture of the leather; originally tanned with sumac in the country of Morocco (see also calf, sheep and vellum) ms, mss manuscript Mull The cloth which reinforces the hinges and is pasted directly to the body of a book and is hidden by the spine n.d. This abbreviation means "no date" provided in the imprint n.p. "No place" of publication provided in the imprint Obverse The front or main surface of anything Octavo see Book Formats Offprint An excerpt of a larger publication which has been printed and bound separately for promotional purposes. For example, publishers will print and bound a chapter of a book to send to booksellers or for the author to give away before the entire book is published. Scholarly excerpts are another example; a portion of a large journal piece printed for a professor to distribute. Offprints are highly sought after by collectors because, technically, they can be considered a first separate edition of the work and will often have a presentation inscription o.p. Out-of-print Open tear A tear which may have some material missing orig. Original, as in original binding Out-of-print No longer available from the publisher (o.p. or op) Out-of-series Unnumbered editions from a numbered limited edition series. They are considered "extra copies" of the edition, are usually not signed, and are not considered part of the limited edition series o/w Otherwise Owner's inscription Words written by previous or original owner of book. Also known as previous owner's inscription Pagination The numbering of the pages Pamphlet A small work that is less than book-length, has paper wraps, and typically has a staple binding. Also known as brochure Panel Refers to borders in binding. Can also be used in connection with the main surfaces of a dust jacket Paperback A book bound with flexible paper covers; usually a term reserved for mass-market publications Paper covers Describes a book not bound in stiff paper covers. Can refer to a temporary binding, a booklet or pamphlet, or a book in early (1800s) wrappers Parchment The skin of a sheep, goat, etc., prepared as a surface for writing or for use as a binding material Pastedown endpaper The part of the endpapers that is pasted to the inside of the front and rear covers Perfect bound A binding method that utilizes a plastic glue to bind the loose leaves to the solid text block of a book. It is used for paperback books Pirate edition Any edition of a work issued without permission of the author and without payment of royalties to the author or copyright holder Plate An illustration(s) printed on a separate sheet of paper (usually heavy and better quality than the text pages) and added to the book during the binding process Points Peculiarities in a published book whose presence or absence helps to determine edition, issue, or state Poor see Condition Portfolio A portable case used to protect loose papers, plates, pamphlets, and the like. It usually consists of two boards with a wide cloth or paper joint forming the "spine." Can also refer to an artist's body of work ppbk A mass market paperback book preliminary pages (prelims) The first pages of the book that appear before the text begins Pre-publication price When a new title is first offered for sale, often this special lower price is promoted and available for a limited time before publication Presentation copy A copy of a printed item inscribed and signed by the author (or publisher) and provided as a gift; see inscribed Price clipped The price on the inner flap of a dust jacket has been cut off Printing The copies of a book or other printed material which originate from the same press run or from the same plates or setting of type at one time. In the example given for "Edition", the 500 copies would be the first printing and the 300 copies comprise the second printing. In the 19th century some publishers labeled later printings as if they were later editions, i.e. a second printing would be called a "second edition" on the copyright page. (see also edition) Pristine condition A book in its original condition, unchanged in any way Private Press A small press, often operated by one person, usually devoted to the production of small quantities of finely printed books Privately Printed A book or pamphlet whose printing was paid for by an individual or group and is meant for private circulation, not public sale Proofs See uncorrected proof Prospectus Printed material, often in the form of a leaflet or broadside, which describes a forth-coming title in detail, often including information on ordering the book including pre-publication price Provenance Evidence of the history of the ownership of a particular book (e.g.: auctions records, booksellers' records, book plates, etc.) The book may be important because of who owned it; perhaps a president or important bookseller, collector, royalty, or someone who may be related to the book in some way. Important in establishing the ownership of especially rare items Pseudonym An assumed name used to protect the anonymity of an author. Also known as pen name or nom de plume Publisher's binding Binding provided by the publisher when supplying a book for a bookseller. This practice, while common today, dates from the 1800s quality paperback See trade paperback Quarter binding see Binding Quarto see Book formats Rag book A children's book printed on and bound with cloth fabric Rare A book that is extremely scarce Raised Bands On a cord-bound book, the horizontal raised bands on the spine, usually of a leather binding. Not often used in books published today, except for quality leather-bound editions Reading copy Well worn, usually abused copy of a book, often in need of rebinding; i.e. suitable for reading, but unlikely to be included in a book collection unless rebound; sometimes refers to a copy that can be read, but is not of a quality worth rebinding Reading crease A crease down the spine of a book (usually a paperback); Rebacked The spine or backstrip has been replaced with new material, in some cases the original worn backstrip is saved and glued over the new material Rebound Copy of a book which has had the original binding removed and a new binding attached; when there is no need to resew or trim the book, the term "recased" is sometimes used to indicate that a new binding and new end papers have been added Recased A repair, where a book is taken apart and put back together using original pages, cloth, and endpapers. Usually done to tighten the sewing or to wash the pages, etc Recto The front side of a leaf or in the case of an open book the page on the right, with the page on the left being the verso Re-issue A term encompassing all types of a reprinting of a work; it can be a later printing of a book, which is substantially unchanged, or an entirely new edition, such as a cloth edition re-issued as a paperback edition Rejointed A book which has been repaired preserving the original covers & spine Remainder A new book returned to the publisher as unsold, then re-marketed at a much lower price Remainder mark A mark (rubber stamp, felt marker stroke, or spray, often on a book's bottom edge) signifying that the book was returned to publisher as unsold, and then sold at a much lower price. Reprint A new impression from the same type setting, or a new edition of the work Re-sized Usually means that all of the pages in the book have been "washed" and sizing material, such as gelatin or glue, has been re-applied. The washing may have been done to remove stains, writing, or acid from the pages. Sizing provides a protective finish and makes flimsy paper stiff Review copy A copy of new book sent free-of-charge for purposes of review. Often includes a laid in review slip with publishing information; not necessarily a first edition Roan A soft, flexible, sheepskin binding. This durable, yet cheap, leather material came in to use around 1790 as a replacement for the more expensive morocco leather, and is not known for its elegance Rough Unpolished suede-like leather, which was primarily used for binding of reference books, music scores, working manuals, and similar books, since the 18th century. Also known as reversed calf Rubbed Where color has been worn from portions of the binding or dust jacket SA Svenska Antivariatforeningen (Swedish antiquarian booksellers' association) Salesman sample Volume made for door-to-door sales of a forth-coming title, usually has examples of several binding styles, the title page, a few pages of text and some illustrations (if any) and often a few ruled leaves bound in the back to be used to record the sales transaction including the name and address of those ordering the book Scarce Traditionally, a "scarce" publication isn't as hard to find as a rare publication, but might take a few years to locate Scuffed Refers to condition; the binding or cover has been scraped and might look rough or slightly frayed in places Self-wrappers The wrappers of a pamphlet consist of the first leaf of the first signature and the final leaf of the last signature; i.e. no special or distinct paper wrappers have been added; often government pamphlets and almanacs have self-wrappers Sewn-as-issued A pamphlet which has been sewn together and exists in its original state relative to binding; normally a pamphlet with self-wrappers Shaken Indicates that sections (signatures) of a book or pamphlet are becoming quite loose, but remain attached to the binding Sheets The pages which have been printed but not yet folded, sewn, or gathered together for binding Sheep A common leather binding material from sheep hides; used like calf for a less expensive binding than morocco, appears to have been frequently used for text books and law books in the 19th century (see also calf, morocco, and vellum) Signature A group or gathering of leaves printed together on a sheet of paper which is folded, bound with other signatures and trimmed to form a book or pamphlet; i.e. a section or grouping of pages in a book resulting from printing and binding methodology; also refers to a person's self handwritten name (autograph signature) Signed Refers to a printed item on which the author (or illustrator or publisher) has written their name, usually on the end papers, title page, or in the case of pamphlets on the wrappers Slipcase A box with one open side, into which a volume or a multivolme set is "slipped" for protection; publishers often issue a slipcase with two and three volume sets Soft cover Typically is synonymous with paperback, but it can also describe a book with a limp cover or a flex-cover Solander case A box in which a book is stored for protection which has one end (often leather) which resembles the spine or backstrip of a book Sophistications Books that have had repairs that involve making additions to the original (e.g.: chips filled in and tinted to match the missing portion, replaced page corners, etc.). Spine The back portion of a book's binding which is visible when a book is shelved in a bookcase; the portion which is attached at the joints to the front and rear covers Started Indicates that one or more signatures of a book are protruding beyond the rest of the fore edge, i.e. beginning to pull away from the binding to which they are still attached; not as loosened as the term "shaken" indicates. State A portion of a printing with changes such as minor alterations to the text either intentional or accidental; insertion of cancels, advertisements, or insertions; copies on different paper without intention of creating a searate issue; and other changes other than folding or collating or binding. An example would be when a pressman discovers battered or broken type, stops the presses and resets that portion of the page by replacing the broken type and then resumes the printing. (see also first edition, issue, and variants) Sticker damage A price sticker has been roughly removed resulting in surface damage to the underlying material Sticker ghost Sticker has been left on book for some time, and the glue, reacting chemically, has discolored the surface Stippled edge Color sprayed on a book's external edges Sunned Browning, yellowing, or fading of paper or binding as a result of sun exposure

Tail Bottom edge of the text block Tape residue Complications of cellophane tape which remains on the paper or a book's cover, resulting in brown stains or bits of tape adhering to paper. t.e.g. Top edge gilt Tender When the binding is loosening Text block Pages containing the content of a book (text, illustrations, etc.) bound together; does not include endpapers Three quarter binding see Binding Tide marks Marks left by water damage Tipped in Paper, photograph, or print glued down by only a narrow strip Title page The page which gives important information about the book (i.e.: title, author, publisher, date, etc.) Tooling The decoration of leather bindings - brass patterned tools are heated to apply gold leaf to the leather binding. Gilt and coloured foils were used to decorate cloth bindings. Top stain The publisher's decorative colored stain, applied to the top page edges Trade paperback When the cloth-bound trade edition is issued by the same publisher, sometimes simultaneously, but bound in wrappers. Because the same sheets are used, such issues are often quite larger than paperbacks published for mass-market distribution Trade edition An edition sold through bookstores, as opposed to those meant for private or specialized distribution Unbound Indicates that the item has never been bound, i.e. unbound sheets; not the same as disbound which indicates that the binding has been removed Uncorrected proof A pre-publication printing intended for editorial use, or occasionally to be sent out for review. Usually issued in plain colored wrappers Uncut Refers to the edges of a book in an untrimmed state, edges are somewhat uneven, also see Deckle edges Unopened A book with signatures which have never been cut as opposed to untrimmed and uneven (see "Uncut"); unopened books retain the folds of the original gathering and contain many pages which cannot be read without first opening the pages with a knife. Some collectors prefer an unopened book because it indicates that the book has never been read; other collectors who read their books would rather not have the task of cutting open pages and risking tears and jagged leaf edges Vanity press Publishers and presses that publish books at the author's own expense Very fine see Condition Very good see Condition VDAV Verband Deutscher Antiquare e. V. (German antiquarian booksellers's association) Variants Usually refers to differences in bindings or end papers ( paper located just inside the front and rear covers, one half of which is glued to the cover) within an issue or printing. One variant may have a title stamped on the front cover in black and another may be stamped in red. (see also first edition, issue, and state) Vellum True vellum is a thin specially treated untanned "leather" from calf skin, also known as parchment (high quality parchment from calf skin is called vellum; general quality parchment is made from calf, goat or sheep skin) ; used for documents and for book bindings; many early books (of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries) have vellum bindings; paper makers have produced parchment and/or vellum papers also used for book bindings Verso The reverse or opposite or left-hand side, especially used in reference to a leaf which has a recto and verso side; in a open book the recto is the right hand page and the verso is the left hand page; in the case of a broadside only the recto is printed and the verso is blank w/. with w.a.f. see Condition Watermark A faint identifying design, usually in quality paper Waterstained Discoloration and perhaps actual shrinking and/or wrinkling of the pages or binding Whipstitching To sew a book's leaves by passing the thread over and over the spine; often seen in early pamphlets Woodcut Illustrations produced when the original printing plate was engraved on a block of wood. One of the oldest methods of printing, dating back to 8th century China Wood Engraving A process somewhat similar to the wood cut in which a design is incised as a series of fine lines . This technique is of later development and is capable of far more detailed effects than the woodcut Worming Small hole in the page of a book left by a book worm Wrappers Abbreviated as "wraps", wrappers are the paper covers of a pamphlet, often of a paper of heavier weight than the text paper; when you see "wrappers" you know the item is not a hard bound book, but is instead a pamphlet or magazine with paper covers; usually not used to refer to 20th century paperback books which are called "soft bound" (with paper covers)

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